The GBP1 microcapsule interferes with IcsA-dependent septin cage assembly around Shigella flexneri.
Many cytosolic bacterial pathogens hijack the host actin polymerization machinery to form actin tails that promote direct cell-to-cell spread, enabling these pathogens to avoid extracellular immune defenses. However, these pathogens are still susceptible to intracellular cell-autonomous immune responses that restrict bacterial actin-based motility. Two classes of cytosolic antimotility factors, septins and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), have recently been established to block actin tail formation by the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri. Both septin cages and GBP1 microcapsules restrict S. flexneri cell-to-cell spread by blocking S. flexneri actin-based motility. While septins assemble into cage-like structures around immobile S. flexneri, GBP1 forms microcapsules around both motile and immobile bacteria. The interplay between these two defense programs remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that GBP1 microcapsules block septin cage assembly, likely by interfering with the function of S. flexneri IcsA, the outer membrane protein that promotes actin-based motility, as this protein is required for septin cage formation. However, S. flexneri that escape from GBP1 microcapsules via the activity of IpaH9.8, a type III secreted effector that promotes the degradation of GBPs, are often captured within septin cages. Thus, our studies reveal how septin cages and GBP1 microcapsules represent complementary host cell antimotility strategies.
Kutsch, M; González-Prieto, C; Lesser, CF; Coers, J
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