SARS-CoV-2 Cardiac Involvement in Young Competitive Athletes.
Background: Cardiac involvement among hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is common and associated with adverse outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement in young competitive athletes. Methods: In this prospective multicenter observational cohort study with data from 42 colleges/universities, we assessed the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement among collegiate athletes in the United States. Data were collected from September 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020. The primary outcome was the prevalence of definite, probable, or possible SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement based on imaging definitions adapted from the Updated Lake Louise Criteria. Secondary outcomes included the diagnostic yield of cardiac testing, predictors for cardiac involvement, and adverse cardiovascular events or hospitalizations. Results: Among 19,378 athletes tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3018 (mean age 20 years [SD,1 year]; 32% female) tested positive and underwent cardiac evaluation. A total of 2820 athletes underwent at least one element of cardiac 'triad' testing [12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), troponin, and/or transthoracic echocardiography(TTE)] followed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) if clinically indicated. In contrast, primary screening CMR was performed in 198 athletes. Abnormal findings suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement were detected by ECG (21/2999,0.7%), cardiac troponin (24/2719,0.9%), and TTE (24/2556,0.9%). Definite, probable, or possible SARS-COV-2 cardiac involvement was identified in 21/3018 (0.7%) athletes, including 15/2820 (0.5%) who underwent clinically indicated CMR (n=119) and 6/198 (3.0%) who underwent primary screening CMR. Accordingly, the diagnostic yield of CMR for SARS-COV-2 cardiac involvement was 4.2 times higher for a clinically indicated CMR (15/119,12.6%) versus a primary screening CMR (6/198,3.0%). After adjustment for race and sex, predictors of SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement included cardiopulmonary symptoms (OR:3.1,95% CI:1.2,7.7) or at least one abnormal triad test (OR:37.4,95% CI:13.3,105.3). Five (0.2%) athletes required hospitalization for non-cardiac complications of SARS-CoV-2. During clinical surveillance (median follow-up 113 days [IQR=90,146]), there was one (0.03%) adverse cardiac event likely unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection among young competitive athletes is associated with a low prevalence of cardiac involvement and a low risk of clinical events in short term follow-up.
Moulson, N; Petek, BJ; Drezner, JA; Harmon, KG; Kliethermes, SA; Patel, MR; Baggish, AL; ORCCA Investigators,
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