A complex of distal appendage-associated kinases linked to human disease regulates ciliary trafficking and stability.
Cilia biogenesis is a complex, multistep process involving the coordination of multiple cellular trafficking pathways. Despite the importance of ciliogenesis in mediating the cellular response to cues from the microenvironment, we have only a limited understanding of the regulation of cilium assembly. We previously identified Tau tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) as a key regulator of ciliogenesis. Here, using CRISPR kinome and biotin identification screening, we identify the CK2 catalytic subunit CSNK2A1 as an important modulator of TTBK2 function in cilia trafficking. Superresolution microscopy reveals that CSNK2A1 is a centrosomal protein concentrated at the mother centriole and associated with the distal appendages. Csnk2a1 mutant cilia are longer than those of control cells, showing instability at the tip associated with ciliary actin cytoskeleton changes. These cilia also abnormally accumulate key cilia assembly and SHH-related proteins. De novo mutations of Csnk2a1 were recently linked to the human genetic disorder Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (OCNDS). Consistent with the role of CSNK2A1 in cilium stability, we find that expression of OCNDS-associated Csnk2a1 variants in wild-type cells causes ciliary structural defects. Our findings provide insights into mechanisms involved in ciliary length regulation, trafficking, and stability that in turn shed light on the significance of cilia instability in human disease.
Loukil, A; Barrington, C; Goetz, SC
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