Wood smoke particle exposure in mice reduces the severity of influenza infection.
Elevated ambient temperatures and extreme weather events have increased the incidence of wildfires world-wide resulting in increased wood smoke particle (WSP). Epidemiologic data suggests that WSP exposure associates with exacerbations of respiratory diseases, and with increased respiratory viral infections. To assess the impact of WSP exposure on host response to viral pneumonia, we performed WSP exposures in rodents followed by infection with mouse adapted influenza (HINI-PR8). C57BL/6 male mice aged 6-8 weeks were challenged with WSP or PBS by oropharyngeal aspiration in acute (single dose) or sub-acute exposures (day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10). Additional groups underwent sub-acute exposure followed by infection by influenza or heat-inactivated (HI) virus. Following exposures/infection, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to assess for total cell counts/differentials, total protein, protein carbonyls and hyaluronan. Lung tissue was assessed for viral counts by real time PCR. When compared to PBS, acute WSP exposure associated with an increase in airspace macrophages. Alternatively, sub-acute exposure resulted in a dose dependent increase in airspace neutrophils. Sub-acute WSP exposure followed by influenza infection was associated with improved respiratory viral outcomes including reduced weight loss and increased blood oxygen saturation, and decreased protein carbonyls and viral titers. Flow cytometry demonstrated dynamic changes in pulmonary macrophage and T cell subsets based on challenge with WSP and influenza. This data suggests that sub-acute WSP exposure can improve host response to acute influenza infection.
Vose, A; McCravy, M; Birukova, A; Yang, Z; Hollingsworth, JW; Que, LG; Tighe, RM
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