Daily energy expenditure through the human life course.
Total daily energy expenditure ("total expenditure") reflects daily energy needs and is a critical variable in human health and physiology, but its trajectory over the life course is poorly studied. We analyzed a large, diverse database of total expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method for males and females aged 8 days to 95 years. Total expenditure increased with fat-free mass in a power-law manner, with four distinct life stages. Fat-free mass-adjusted expenditure accelerates rapidly in neonates to ~50% above adult values at ~1 year; declines slowly to adult levels by ~20 years; remains stable in adulthood (20 to 60 years), even during pregnancy; then declines in older adults. These changes shed light on human development and aging and should help shape nutrition and health strategies across the life span.
Pontzer, H; Yamada, Y; Sagayama, H; Ainslie, PN; Andersen, LF; Anderson, LJ; Arab, L; Baddou, I; Bedu-Addo, K; Blaak, EE; Blanc, S; Bonomi, AG; Bouten, CVC; Bovet, P; Buchowski, MS; Butte, NF; Camps, SG; Close, GL; Cooper, JA; Cooper, R; Das, SK; Dugas, LR; Ekelund, U; Entringer, S; Forrester, T; Fudge, BW; Goris, AH; Gurven, M; Hambly, C; El Hamdouchi, A; Hoos, MB; Hu, S; Joonas, N; Joosen, AM; Katzmarzyk, P; Kempen, KP; Kimura, M; Kraus, WE; Kushner, RF; Lambert, EV; Leonard, WR; Lessan, N; Martin, C; Medin, AC; Meijer, EP; Morehen, JC; Morton, JP; Neuhouser, ML; Nicklas, TA; Ojiambo, RM; Pietiläinen, KH; Pitsiladis, YP; Plange-Rhule, J; Plasqui, G; Prentice, RL; Rabinovich, RA; Racette, SB; Raichlen, DA; Ravussin, E; Reynolds, RM; Roberts, SB; Schuit, AJ; Sjödin, AM; Stice, E; Urlacher, SS; Valenti, G; Van Etten, LM; Van Mil, EA; Wells, JCK; Wilson, G; Wood, BM; Yanovski, J; Yoshida, T; Zhang, X; Murphy-Alford, AJ; Loechl, C; Luke, AH; Rood, J; Schoeller, DA; Westerterp, KR; Wong, WW; Speakman, JR; IAEA DLW Database Consortium,
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