Urinary Biomarkers of Renal Injury KIM-1 and NGAL: Reference Intervals for Healthy Pediatric Population in Sri Lanka.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Emerging renal biomarkers (e.g., kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)) are thought to be highly sensitive in diagnosing renal injury. However, global data on reference intervals for emerging biomarkers in younger populations are lacking. Here, we aimed to determine reference intervals for KIM-1 and NGAL across a pediatric population in Sri Lanka; a country significantly impacted by the emergence of chronic kidney disease of unexplained etiology (CKDu). Urine samples were collected from children (10-18 years) with no prior record of renal diseases from the dry climatic zone of Sri Lanka (N = 909). Urinary KIM-1 and NGAL concentrations were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and adjusted to urinary creatinine. Biomarker levels were stratified by age and gender, and reference intervals derived with quantile regression (2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th quantiles) were expressed at 95% CI. The range of median reference intervals for urinary KIM-1 and NGAL in children were 0.081-0.426 ng/mg Cr, 2.966-4.850 ng/mg Cr for males, and 0.0780-0.5076 ng/mg Cr, 2.0850-3.4960 ng/mg Cr for females, respectively. Renal biomarkers showed weak correlations with age, gender, ACR, and BMI. Our findings provide reference intervals to facilitate screening to detect early renal damage, especially in rural communities that are impacted by CKDu.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • De Silva, PMCS; Gunasekara, TDKSC; Gunarathna, SD; Sandamini, PMMA; Pinipa, RAI; Ekanayake, EMDV; Thakshila, WAKG; Jayasinghe, SS; Chandana, EPS; Jayasundara, N

Published Date

  • August 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 8 / 8

Start / End Page

  • 684 -

PubMed ID

  • 34438575

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8391325

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2227-9067

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2227-9067

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3390/children8080684


  • eng