Blood and urine biomarkers in osteoarthritis - an update on cartilage associated type II collagen and aggrecan markers.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful disease for which drug development has proven difficult. One major reason for this is the heterogeneity of the disease and the current lack of operationalized means to distinguish various disease endotypes (molecular subtypes). Biomarkers measured in blood or urine, reflecting joint tissue turnover, have been developed and tested during the last decades. In this narrative review, we provide highlights on biomarkers derived from the two most studied and abundant cartilage proteins - type II collagen and aggrecan. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple biomarkers assessing type II collagen degradation and formation, and aggrecan turnover have been developed. Several markers, such as uCTX-II, have been validated for their association with disease severity and prognosis, as well as pharmacodynamically used to describe the mode of action and efficacy of drugs in development. There is a great need for biomarkers for subdividing patients (i.e., endotyping) and recent scientific advances have not yet come closer to achieving this goal. SUMMARY: There is strong support for using biomarkers for understanding OA, reflecting degradation and formation of the joint tissues, focused on type II collagen and aggrecan. There is still a lack of in vitro diagnostics, in all contexts of use.
Bay-Jensen, AC; Mobasheri, A; Thudium, CS; Kraus, VB; Karsdal, MA
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