Globally Relaxed Selection and Local Adaptation in Boechera stricta.
The strength of selection varies among populations and across the genome, but the determinants of efficacy of selection remain unclear. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing data from 467 Boechera stricta accessions to quantify the strength of selection and characterize the pattern of local adaptation. We found low genetic diversity on 0-fold degenerate sites and conserved non-coding sites, indicating functional constraints on these regions. The estimated distribution of fitness effects and the proportion of fixed substitutions suggest relaxed negative and positive selection in B. stricta. Among the four population groups, the NOR and WES groups have smaller effective population size (Ne), higher proportions of effectively neutral sites, and lower rates of adaptive evolution compared with UTA and COL groups, reflecting the effect of Ne on the efficacy of natural selection. We also found weaker selection on GC-biased sites compared with GC-conservative (unbiased) sites, suggested that GC-biased gene conversion has affected the strength of selection in B. stricta. We found mixed evidence for the role of the recombination rate on the efficacy of selection. The positive and negative selection was stronger in high-recombination regions compared with low-recombination regions in COL but not in other groups. By scanning the genome, we found different subsets of selected genes suggesting differential adaptation among B. stricta groups. These results show that differences in effective population size, nucleotide composition, and recombination rate are important determinants of the efficacy of selection. This study enriches our understanding of the roles of natural selection and local adaptation in shaping genomic variation.
Liang, Y-Y; Chen, X-Y; Zhou, B-F; Mitchell-Olds, T; Wang, B
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