Perioperative Pain Management for Elective Spine Surgery: Opioid Use and Multimodal Strategies.
In recent years, physicians and institutions have come to recognize the increasing opioid epidemic in the United States, thus prompting a dramatic shift in opioid prescribing patterns. The lack of well-studied alternative treatment regimens has led to a substantial burden of opioid addiction in the United States. These forces have led to a huge economic burden on the country. The spine surgery population is particularly high risk for uncontrolled perioperative pain, because most patients experience chronic pain preoperatively and many patients continue to experience pain postoperatively. Overall, there is a large incentive to better understand comprehensive multimodal pain management regimens, particularly in the spine surgery patient population. The goal of this review is to explore trends in pain symptoms in spine surgery patients, overview the best practices in pain medications and management, and provide a concise multimodal and behavioral treatment algorithm for pain management, which has since been adopted by a high-volume tertiary academic medical center.
Corley, JA; Charalambous, LT; Mehta, VA; Wang, TY; Abdelgadir, J; Than, KD; Abd-El-Barr, MM; Goodwin, CR; Shaffrey, CI; Karikari, IO
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