Relationships among uncertainty, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and quality of life in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer survivors.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


The aim of this study was to examine relationships among uncertainty, PTSD symptoms (PTSS), and quality of life (QOL) in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) survivors.


Eligible NMIBC survivors were identified through the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry, and 398 survivors participated in a mailed survey that measured survivor's outcomes (uncertainty, PTSS, and QOL). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of uncertainty and PTSS on the association between personal characteristics and QOL in NMIBC survivors.


NMIBC survivors experienced cancer-related uncertainty; higher uncertainty was associated with male, lower income, lack of cure, and lower cognition-ability. Uncertainty was significantly and negatively associated with QOL. In addition, PTSS completely mediated the effect of uncertainty on QOL, and higher PTSS had a strong association with poorer QOL. Additionally, comorbidities, cognition-general concerns, uncertainty, and PTSS had strong negative effects on QOL.


This study has identified modifiable psychosocial factors which affect QOL in NMIBC survivors. The study findings can be used in the development of interventions to improve QOL for NMIBC survivors.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Jung, A; Crandell, JL; Nielsen, ME; Smith, SK; Bryant, AL; Mayer, DK

Published Date

  • July 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 30 / 7

Start / End Page

  • 6175 - 6185

PubMed ID

  • 35437672

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1433-7339

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0941-4355

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/s00520-022-07034-1


  • eng