Structural characterization of the 5' regions of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is expressed in a liver-specific manner and catalyzes the enzymatic conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Genetic deficiency of PAH results in the autosomal-recessive disorder phenylketonuria (PKU). Through the application of genomic and cDNA cloning, primer extension studies, SI mapping experiments, and PCR methodologies, the transcription initiation (CAP) site has been identified and the 5'-flanking region determined. The most upstream CAP site for the human hepatic PAH gene transcript is located 154 nucleotides upstream of the first translation codon. The genomic and cDNA sequences analyzed demonstrated that the previously reported cDNA sequence, phPAH247 [Kwok et al. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 556-561], contained a 164-nucleotide cloning artifact at its 5'-end. The 319 base pair region immediately upstream of the CAP site is characterized by the lack of a proximal TATA box and the presence of sequences similar to GC boxes, CACCC boxes, CCAAT boxes, activator protein 2 (Ap-2) sites, partial glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), and partial cyclic AMP response elements (CREs). This suggests that the human PAH gene has a TATA-less promoter regulated by multiple transcription factors.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Konecki, DS; Wang, Y; Trefz, FK; Lichter-Konecki, U; Woo, SL

Published Date

  • September 8, 1992

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 31 / 35

Start / End Page

  • 8363 - 8368

PubMed ID

  • 1326329

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0006-2960

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1021/bi00150a033


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States