Assessment of Papillary Muscle Infarction with Dark-Blood Delayed Enhancement Cardiac MRI in Canines and Humans.
Background The relationship between papillary muscle infarction (papMI) and the culprit coronary lesion has not been fully investigated. Delayed enhancement cardiac MRI may detect papMI, yet its accuracy is unknown. Flow-independent dark-blood delayed enhancement (FIDDLE) cardiac MRI has been shown to improve the detection of myocardial infarction adjacent to blood pool. Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of delayed enhancement and FIDDLE cardiac MRI for the detection of papMI, and to investigate the prevalence of papMI and its relationship to the location of the culprit coronary lesion. Materials and Methods A prospective canine study was used to determine the accuracy of conventional delayed enhancement imaging and FIDDLE imaging for detection of papMI, with pathology-based findings as the reference standard. Participants with first-time myocardial infarction with a clear culprit lesion at coronary angiography were prospectively enrolled at a single hospital from 2015 to 2018 and compared against control participants with low Framingham risk scores. In canines, diagnostic accuracy was calculated for delayed enhancement and FIDDLE imaging. Results In canines (n = 27), FIDDLE imaging was more sensitive (100% [23 of 23] vs 57% [13 of 23], P < .001) and accurate (100% [54 of 54] vs 80% [43 of 54], P = .01) than delayed enhancement imaging for detection of papMI. In 43 participants with myocardial infarction (mean age, 56 years ± 16 [SD]; 28 men), the infarct-related artery was the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), and right coronary artery in 47% (20 of 43), 26% (11 of 43), and 28% (12 of 43), respectively. The prevalence of anterior papMI was lower than posterior papMI (37% [16 of 43 participants] vs 44% [19 of 43 participants]) despite more LAD culprit lesions. Culprits leading to papMI were restricted to a smaller "at-risk" portion of the coronary tree for anterior papMI (subtended first diagonal branch of the LAD or first marginal branch of the LCX) compared with posterior (subtended posterior descending artery or third obtuse marginal branch of the LCX). Culprits within these at-risk portions were predictive of papMI at a similar rate (anterior, 83% [15 of 18 participants] vs posterior, 86% [18 of 21 participants]). Conclusion Flow-independent dark-blood delayed enhancement cardiac MRI, unlike conventional delayed enhancement cardiac MRI, was highly accurate in the detection of papillary muscle infarction (papMI). Anterior papMI was less prevalent than posterior papMI, most likely due to culprit lesions being restricted to a smaller portion of the coronary tree rather than because of redundant, dual vascular supply. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Kawel-Boehm and Bremerich in this issue.
Wendell, D; Jenista, E; Kim, HW; Chen, E-L; Azevedo, CF; Kaolawanich, Y; Alenezi, F; Rehwald, W; Darty, S; Parker, M; Kim, RJ
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