An expanded two-state model accounts for homotropic cooperativity in biosynthetic threonine deaminase from Escherichia coli.
The linkage between substrate and regulatory effector binding to separate sites on allosteric enzymes results in shifts in their sigmoidal kinetics to regulate metabolism. Control of branched chain amino acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli occurs in part through shifts in the sigmoidal dependence of alpha-ketobutyrate production promoted by isoleucine and valine binding to biosynthetic threonine deaminase. The structural similarity of threonine, valine, and isoleucine have given rise to suggestions that there may be competition among different ligands for the same sites on this tetrameric enzyme, resulting in a complex pattern of regulation. In an effort to provide a coherent interpretation of the cooperative association of ligands to the active sites and to the effector sites of threonine deaminase, binding studies using single amino acid variants were undertaken. A previously-isolated, feedback-resistant mutant identified in Salmonella typhimurium, ilvA219, has been cloned and sequenced. The phenotype is attributable to a single amino acid substitution in the regulatory domain of the enzyme in which leucine at position 447 is substituted with phenylalanine. The mutant exhibits hyperbolic saturation curves in both ligand binding and steady-state kinetics. These results, in addition to calorimetric and spectroscopic measurements of isoleucine and valine binding, indicate that the low affinity (T) state is destabilized in the mutant and that it exists predominantly in the high affinity (R) conformation in the absence of ligands, providing an explanation for its resistance to isoleucine. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses of another mutant, in which alanine has replaced an essential lysine at position 62 that forms a Schiff base with pyridoxal phosphate, indicate that the cofactor is complexed to exogenous threonine and is therefore unable to bind additional amino acids at the active sites. Isoleucine and valine binding to this inactive, active site-saturated enzyme revealed that it too was stabilized in the R state, yielding binding constants in excellent agreement with the leucine to phenylalanine mutant. The lysine to alanine mutant was further utilized to demonstrate that both threonine and 2-aminobutyrate bind with stronger affinity to the regulatory sites than to the active sites. A direct consequence of these results is that substrates and analogs have a synergistic effect on the allosteric transition since, in effect, they act as both homotropic and heterotropic effectors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Eisenstein, E; Yu, HD; Fisher, KE; Iacuzio, DA; Ducote, KR; Schwarz, FP
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