Luminal epidermal growth factor preserves mucosal mass of small bowel in fasting rats.
1. Fasting causes atrophy of small bowel mucosa which rapidly resolves with luminal feeding. This effect of enteral nutrient may be mediated by stimulation of growth factor secretion. We therefore evaluated whether luminal administration of epidermal growth factor, a peptide hormone found in gastro-intestinal contents and trophic for small bowel mucosa, would prevent the mucosal atrophy associated with starvation. 2. Adult rats were: (i) fasted for 3 days, (ii) fasted and then refed for 1 day or (iii) fasted and then refed for 2 days. During the 2 days before study, animals in each group received infusions of epidermal growth factor (2.5 micrograms/day) or diluent alone into distal jejunum. 3. Epidermal growth factor treatment of fasted animals resulted in a tripling of mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001) and a doubling of mucosal DNA content (P < 0.001) in the jejunum, values similar to those of refed animals. Epidermal growth factor infusion in refed rats resulted in a further doubling of mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001), but no additional increase in DNA content. Effects of epidermal growth factor infusion were generally greater in jejunum than ileum. 4. In conclusion, luminal exposure to epidermal growth factor prevents starvation-induced mucosal atrophy in the small bowel, but does not enhance the mucosal growth associated with refeeding. Effects are greatest at the site of administration. Luminal epidermal growth factor is a potential mediator of the indirect effects of nutrient on mucosal growth in the small bowel. Enteral administration of epidermal growth factor holds promise for preventing atrophy and maintaining mucosal integrity in starved and post-operative patients.
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