The catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase-1 and protein phosphatase 2A are distinct gene products.
Three forms of protein phosphatase-1 were isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle that had Mr values of 37 000, 34 000 and 33 000 determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gel electrophoresis. Each species dephosphorylated the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase very much faster than the alpha-subunit, was inhibited by inhibitors 1 and 2 with equal potency, and was converted to a form dependent on glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Mg-ATP for activity by incubation with inhibitor-2. Digestion with cyanogen bromide or Staphylococcus aureus proteinase followed by SDS gel electrophoresis showed a very similar pattern of cleavage products for all three forms. The Mr-37 000 and Mr-34 000 species were converted to the Mr-33 000 form by incubation with chymotrypsin. It is concluded that the Mr-33 000 and Mr-34 000 forms are derived from the Mr-37 000 component by limited proteolysis. Conversion of the Mr-37 000 to the Mr-33 000 form was accompanied by a two-fold increase in activity, indicating that an Mr-4000 fragment at one end of the polypeptide is an inhibitory domain that decreases enzyme activity. The catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A from rabbit skeletal muscle had an Mr of 36 000 determined by SDS gel electrophoresis and its specific activity (3 kU/mg) was much lower than that of the Mr-37 000 (15-20 kU/mg) or Mr-33/34 000 (40-50 kU/mg) forms of protein phosphatase-1. It dephosphorylated the alpha-subunit of phosphorylase kinase 4-5-fold faster than the beta-subunit, was unaffected by inhibitor-1 or inhibitor-2, and preincubation with the latter protein did not result in the production of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Mg-ATP-dependent form of the enzyme. Digestion with chymotrypsin did not alter the electrophoretic mobility of protein phosphatase 2A under conditions that caused quantitative conversion of the Mr-37 000 form of protein phosphatase-1 to the Mr-33 000 species. Digestion with cyanogen bromide or S. aureus proteinase, followed by SDS gel electrophoresis, showed a quite different pattern of cleavage products to those observed with protein phosphatase 1. Antibody to protein phosphatase-2A raised in sheep did not cross-react with any of the forms of protein phosphatase-1, as judged by immunoelectrophoretic and immunotitration experiments. It is concluded that protein phosphatase-1 and protein phosphatase-2A are distinct gene products.
Tung, HY; Resink, TJ; Hemmings, BA; Shenolikar, S; Cohen, P
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