[Genetic structure of geographically different populations of candida albicans].
Codominant single-locus markers were developed by amplifying genomic DNA of C. albicans with pairs of random primers. Monomorphic PCR products were screened for polymorphisms by the SSCP technique. Sequencing confirmed that SSCP's were mostly due to single nucleotide substitutions in the polymorphic fragments. A total of 85 polymorphic loci were observed within 13 PCR fragments. Populations from Africa displayed less genotype variation than the populations from Europe and USA. Two genetically similar African C. albicans populations exhibiting an atypical biotype were strictly clonal and perhaps represent a geographically distributed clone. Analyses of "typical" C. albicans populations of different geographical origin provided however evidence for both clonality and recombination. Evidence for clonality was supported by the absence of segregation genotypes, and by deviation of genotypic frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Tests for nonrandom association of alleles across loci revealed less evidence for linkage disequilibrium than expected for strictly clonal populations. Although all C. albicans populations tested were primarily clonal, evidence for recombination suggests that sexual reproduction or some other form of genetic exchange occurs in this species.
Schönian, G; Forche, A; Tietz, HJ; Müller, M; Gräser, Y; Vilgalys, R; Mitchell, TG; Presber, W
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