Measurement of vascular input impedance in infrainguinal vein grafts.
The purpose of this investigation was to measure vascular input impedance in infrainguinal vein grafts and assess the importance of clinical and hemodynamic parameters in predicting graft patency. Fifty-seven patients undergoing infrainguinal vein bypass grafting for limb salvage (n = 40) or claudication (n = 17) were prospectively studied. At the time of revascularization, simultaneously acquired intraluminal pressure and blood flow waveforms were digitized at 200 Hz and subjected to Fourier transformation in near real-time. Input impedance was calculated at baseline (immediately after unclamping) and after stimulation with either papaverine or completion arteriography. Resistance (Rin) was calculated as mean pressure divided by mean blood flow (Q). Characteristic impedance (Z0) was calculated as the mean of harmonics 3-10. Intraoperative data acquisition required approximately 5 min, utilized the completion angiography cannula already in place, and was uncomplicated in all patients. Stimulation with either papaverine or arteriography resulted in increased Q (72 +/- 7 to 146 +/- 11 ml/min, p < 0.001), decreased Rin (126 +/- 13 to 52 +/- 4 x 10(3) dyne.s.cm-5, p < 0.001), and slightly decreased Z0 (18 +/- 2 to 15 +/- 1, p = 0.002). After a mean follow-up of 20 months, the 2-year primary patency, secondary patency, limb salvage, and survival rates were 61 +/- 8%, 74 +/- 7%, 76 +/- 6%, and 86 +/- 6%, respectively. Primary patency was not associated with any of the clinical variables studied including age, sex, smoking history, history of previous vascular surgery, hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, creatinine, indication for revascularization (claudication versus limb salvage), anesthesia (general versus regional), or level of distal anastomosis (popliteal versus infrapopliteal). Furthermore, there was no association between primary patency and baseline Q, baseline Rin, or stimulated Z0. However, using univariate analysis, patency was positively associated with decreased stimulated Rin (p = 0.002), elevated stimulated Q (p = 0.006), and decreased baseline Z0 (p = 0.02). Multiple regression analysis identified stimulated Rin as the only independent predictor of primary patency (p = 0.002). Stimulated Rin > or = 50 x 10(3) dyne.s.cm-5 was 71% sensitive and 65% specific for graft failure. It is concluded that 1) vascular input impedance can be simply and reliably measured in the operating room, and 2) elevated stimulated Rin is an independent predictor of primary patency.
Schwartz, LB; Purut, CM; Craig, DM; Smith, PK; Moawad, J; McCann, RL
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