Signal transduction through substance P receptor in human glioblastoma cells: roles for Src and PKCdelta.
Substance P receptor (SPR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is found in human glioblastomas, and has been implicated in their growth. Consistent with a role for SPR in cell growth, activation of SPR in U373 MG human glioblastoma cells leads to the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases [extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)] and stimulation of cell proliferation. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the pathway through which these actions occur. Using either the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor, AG 1478, or a small-interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against human EGFR, we found that transactivation of EGFR by SPR is only marginally involved in SP-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Src, however, is shown to be a major component of SPR signaling because the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, and a kinase-dead Src mutant both inhibit SP-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We also report that SPR stimulates the phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta(PKCdelta), and that this stimulation is blocked by PP2. SP-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation is also blocked by rottlerin, a PKCdelta inhibitor, and the calcium scavenger, BAPTA/AM. Finally, rottlerin and PP2 were both found to inhibit the growth of several glioblastoma cell lines, underscoring the potential of these agents to block glioblastoma growth.
Yamaguchi, K; Richardson, MD; Bigner, DD; Kwatra, MM
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