3-nitrotyrosine attenuates respiratory syncytial virus infection in human bronchial epithelial cell line.
3-nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr), an L-tyrosine derivative during nitrative stress, can substitute the COOH-terminal tyrosine of alpha-tubulin, posttranslationally altering microtubular functions. Because infection of the cells by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) may require intact microtubules, we tested the hypothesis that NO2Tyr would inhibit RSV infection and intracellular signaling via nitrotyrosination of alpha-tubulin. A human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) was incubated with RSV with or without NO2Tyr. The release of chemokines and viral particles and activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) were measured. Incubation with NO2Tyr increased nitrotyrosinated alpha-tubulin, and NO2Tyr colocalized with microtubules. RSV-infected cells released viral particles, RANTES, and IL-8 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and intracellular RSV proteins coprecipitated with alpha-tubulin. NO2Tyr attenuated the RSV-induced release of RANTES, IL-8, and viral particles by 50-90% and decreased alpha-tubulin-associated RSV proteins. 3-chlorotyrosine, another L-tyrosine derivative, had no effects. NO2Tyr also inhibited the RSV-induced shift of the unphosphorylated form I of IRF-3 to the phosphorylated form II. Pre-exposure of the cells to NO(2) (0.15 ppm, 4 h), which produced diffuse protein tyrosine nitration, did not affect RSV-induced release of RANTES, IL-8, or viral particles. NO2Tyr did not affect the potential of viral spreading to the neighboring cells since the RSV titers were not decreased when the uninfected cells were cocultured with the preinfected cells in NO2Tyr-containing medium. These results indicate that NO2Tyr, by replacing the COOH-terminal tyrosine of alpha-tubulin, attenuated RSV infection, and the inhibition appeared to occur at the early stages of RSV infection.
Huang, Y-CT; Li, Z; Brighton, LE; Carson, JL; Becker, S; Soukup, JM
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