Two-dimensional arrays for medical ultrasound.
The design, fabrication and evaluation of two-dimensional transducer arrays are described for medical ultrasound imaging. A 4 x 32, 2.8 MHz array was developed to use new signal processing techniques for improved B-scan imaging including elevation focusing, phase correction and synthetic aperture imaging. Laboratory measurements from typical array elements showed 50 omega insertion loss of -56 dB, -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 43%, interelement crosstalk of -19 dB, and -6 dB pulse-echo angular response of 62 degrees. Simulations of pulse-echo beam plots have shown grating lobes 20 dB below the main lobe at +/- 7 degrees in the elevation direction. The complete 2-D array has been used for measurements of phase aberrations in breast, and the individual 32 element linear arrays have been used to obtain conventional B-scans. Several 16 x 16 arrays have also been developed for high speed volumetric imaging. These include 96 transmit elements and 32 receive channels. With a lambda/4 matching layer, laboratory measurements show 50 omega insertion loss of -72 dB, -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 63%, interelement crosstalk of -29 dB and -6 dB angular response of 25 degrees. Pulse-echo sensitivity was improved by 21 dB through the use of integrated circuit preamplifiers of high impedance mounted in the transducer handle. In vivo cardiac, abdominal, and obstetric B-scans with elevation focusing, as well as high speed C-scans, have been obtained with these 2-D arrays.
Smith, SW; Trahey, GE; von Ramm, OT
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