A longitudinal study of the relationship between health behavior risk factors and dependence in activities of daily living.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to shed further light on the effect of modifiable health behavior risk factors on dependence in activities of daily living, defined in a multidimensional fashion. METHODS: The study participants were 10,278 middle aged Americans in a longitudinal health study, the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS). A multi-stage probability sampling design incorporating the effect of population sizes (Metropolitan and non-metropolitan), ethnicity (the non-Hispanic White, the Hispanic, and the Black), and age (age 51-61) was utilized. Basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were measured using five activities necessary for survival (impairment in dressing, eating, bathing, sleeping, and moving across indoor spaces). Explanatory variables were four health behavior risk factors included smoking, exercise, Body Mass Index (BMI), and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Most participants at baseline were ADL independent (1992). 97.8% of participants were independent in all ADL's at baseline and 78.2% were married. Approximately 27.5% were current smokers at baseline, and the subjects reported moderate or heavy exercise were 74.8%. All demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were significantly associated with the ADL status at Wave 4 except alcohol consumption. Risk behaviors such as current smoking, sedentary life style and high BMI at Wave 1 were associated with ADL status deterioration; however, moderate alcohol consumption tended to be more related to better ADL status than abstaining at Wave 4. ADL status at Wave 1 was the strongest factor and the next was exercise and smoking affecting ADL status at Wave 4. People who were in ADL dependent at Wave 1 were 15.17 times more likely to be ADL dependent at Wave 4 than people who were in ADL independent at Wave 1. Concerning smoking cigarettes, people who kept only light exercise or sedentary life style at Wave 1 were 1.70 times more likely to be died at Wave 4 than the people who did not smoke at Wave 1. CONCLUSIONS: All demographics and health behaviors at wave 1 had consistently similar OR trends for ADL status to each other except alcohol consumption. Smoking and exercise in health behaviors, and age and gender in demographics at Wave 1 were significant factors associated with ADL group separation at Wave 4.
Jung, S-H; Ostbye, T; Park, K-O
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)