Neurogenic pulmonary edema during intracranial endovascular therapy.
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a well-known complication of acute brain injury. Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM) occurs clinically in a significant subset of patients with NPE. A 49-year-old woman developed refractory cerebral vasospasm requiring angioplasty following a subarachnoid hemorrhage. During angioplasty, NPE with NSM manifested as acute pulmonary edema associated with elevated pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and reduced cardiac output. Evaluations disclosed a right insular infarction, cardiac wall motion abnormalities, and electrocardiographic characteristics of NSM. The NSM completely resolved, and the neurological outcome was good. A 56-year-old woman developed NPE during complicated coil embolization of an internal carotid artery aneurysm. Cardiac function was normal, and the NPE resolved with a brief period of mechanical ventilation and diuresis. The delayed appearance of NSM and NPE during endovascular therapy in these patients implies a degree of risk for sympathetically mediated cardiopulmonary dysfunction during complex intracranial endovascular procedures.
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