On array design for matched-field processing
Conventional plane-wave beamforming array design guidelines are motivated by the desire to obtain particular beampattern characteristics, such as main lobe width and side lobe levels. These design guidelines are appropriate for arrays employed for beamforming, where a plane-wave signal model is utilized to derive both the array design parameters and the beamforming algorithm. However, matched-field processing utilizes full-field acoustic propagation models to exploit the complexities of ocean acoustic propagation. As a result, there may be more appropriate design guidelines for arrays employed for matched-field processing. In this paper, general guidelines for matched-field processing array design utilizing a normal mode propagation model are proposed. Various line array configurations are evaluated with respect to source localization performance, and the results suggest that arrays designed for matched-field processing should provide a unique representation of each propagating mode along the extent of the array. Further, the empirical analyses support the guidelines suggested by the theoretical analyses and show that arrays which are far from meeting conventional beamforming array design requirements may be more than sufficient for matched-field processing.
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