Continuous arterial and venous blood gas monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass.
A new monitoring technique, based on optical fluorescence chemistry, allows continuous monitoring of all blood gas variables during cardiopulmonary bypass. To evaluate the clinical performance of this monitor, we drew 220 arterial and 216 venous blood samples from 15 patients, and simultaneous blood gas values displayed by the monitor were compared with standard laboratory measurements. The continuous monitor predicted laboratory values with varying degrees of accuracy. (R2 values by linear regression: arterial oxygen tension 0.86, venous oxygen tension 0.36, arterial carbon dioxide tension 0.58, venous carbon dioxide tension 0.72, arterial pH 0.53, venous pH 0.58; pH 0.53, venous pH 0.58; p less than 0.0001). Monitor values of arterial oxygen tension overestimated laboratory values (bias = + 43.5 mm Hg), but the laboratory reference method likely underestimated true arterial oxygen tension in the high range achieved on bypass. Monitoring of venous oxygen tension was imprecise (precision = +/- 6.51 mmHg), regardless of whether stable conditions existed during the sampling period. Monitoring of carbon dioxide tension and pH showed small bias (carbon dioxide tension within 2 mm Hg, pH within 0.03) and good precision (carbon dioxide tension within 3 mm Hg, pH within 0.03). With the development of unstable conditions on bypass, monitor arterial oxygen tension values showed a changing relationship to corresponding laboratory values. In conclusion, arterial and venous carbon dioxide tension and pH monitoring provide acceptably accurate alternatives to laboratory measurement of these variables during cardiopulmonary bypass. Arterial oxygen tension monitoring accurately indicates changes in oxygen tension in the arterial oxygen tension range typically produced during extracorporeal circulation. Oxygen tension monitoring in the venous oxygen tension range is too imprecise for clinical decision-making purposes.
Mark, JB; FitzGerald, D; Fenton, T; Fosberg, AM; Camann, W; Maffeo, N; Winkelman, J
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