E1A-mediated inhibition of myogenesis correlates with a direct physical interaction of E1A12S and basic helix-loop-helix proteins.
The observation that adenovirus E1A gene products can inhibit differentiation of skeletal myocytes suggested that E1A may interfere with the activity of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. We have examined the ability of E1A to mediate repression of the muscle-specific creatine kinase (MCK) gene. Both the E1A12S and E1A13S products repressed MCK transcription in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, amino-terminal deletion mutants (d2-36 and d15-35) of E1A12S were defective for repression. E1A12S also repressed expression of a promoter containing a multimer of the MCK high-affinity E box (the consensus site for myogenic bHLH protein binding) that was dependent, in C3H10T1/2 cells, on coexpression of a myogenin bHLH-VP16 fusion protein. A series of coprecipitation experiments with glutathione S-transferase fusion and in vitro-translated proteins demonstrated that E1A12S, but not amino-terminal E1A deletion mutants, could bind to full-length myogenin and E12 and to deletion mutants of myogenin and E12 that spare the bHLH domains. Thus, the bHLH domains of myogenin and E12, and the high-affinity E box, are targets for E1A-mediated repression of the MCK enhancer, and domains of E1A required for repression of muscle-specific gene transcription also mediate binding to bHLH proteins. We conclude that E1A mediates repression of muscle-specific gene transcription through its amino-terminal domain and propose that this may involve a direct physical interaction between E1A and the bHLH region of myogenic determination proteins.
Taylor, DA; Kraus, VB; Schwarz, JJ; Olson, EN; Kraus, WE
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