Kinetics of release of serotonin from isolated secretory granules. I. Amperometric detection of serotonin from electroporated granules.
We developed a method for measuring the efflux of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) from isolated intact granules of the mast cell of the beige mouse. This method combines electroporation of the vesicle membrane with amperometric detection of 5-HT. A single secretory granule is placed between two platinum electrodes (distance approximately 100 microm) and positioned adjacent (<1 microm) to a carbon fiber microelectrode. A short (approximately 30 micros) high-intensity voltage pulse (electric field of approximately 5 kV/cm) is delivered to the electrodes to trigger the mechanical breakdown of the granule membrane, which activates the release of 5-HT. We observed concurrent swelling of the granule matrix with the oxidation of 5-HT at the carbon fiber electrode (overpotential + 650 mV). Similar to the release of secretory products during exocytosis, the oxidation current exhibits a spike-like time course with a noninstantaneous rising phase (time between onset of current and maximum flux, t(max)) with approximately 25% of the molecules released during this period. When the current reaches its maximum, the granule matrix attains its maximum swollen state. We found that the rising phase depends on the initial cross-sectional area of the granule (t(max) approximately 21r2) and reflects the time required for membrane rupture. The average t(1/2)spike of the amperometric spikes was found to be approximately 150 ms, which is 3-7 times faster than the t(1/2) measured during cellular exocytosis.
Marszalek, PE; Farrell, B; Verdugo, P; Fernandez, JM
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)