Information-theoretic CAD system in mammography: entropy-based indexing for computational efficiency and robust performance.
We have previously presented a knowledge-based computer-assisted detection (KB-CADe) system for the detection of mammographic masses. The system is designed to compare a query mammographic region with mammographic templates of known ground truth. The templates are stored in an adaptive knowledge database. Image similarity is assessed with information theoretic measures (e.g., mutual information) derived directly from the image histograms. A previous study suggested that the diagnostic performance of the system steadily improves as the knowledge database is initially enriched with more templates. However, as the database increases in size, an exhaustive comparison of the query case with each stored template becomes computationally burdensome. Furthermore, blind storing of new templates may result in redundancies that do not necessarily improve diagnostic performance. To address these concerns we investigated an entropy-based indexing scheme for improving the speed of analysis and for satisfying database storage restrictions without compromising the overall diagnostic performance of our KB-CADe system. The indexing scheme was evaluated on two different datasets as (i) a search mechanism to sort through the knowledge database, and (ii) a selection mechanism to build a smaller, concise knowledge database that is easier to maintain but still effective. There were two important findings in the study. First, entropy-based indexing is an effective strategy to identify fast a subset of templates that are most relevant to a given query. Only this subset could be analyzed in more detail using mutual information for optimized decision making regarding the query. Second, a selective entropy-based deposit strategy may be preferable where only high entropy cases are maintained in the knowledge database. Overall, the proposed entropy-based indexing scheme was shown to reduce the computational cost of our KB-CADe system by 55% to 80% while maintaining the system's diagnostic performance.
Tourassi, GD; Harrawood, B; Singh, S; Lo, JY
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