Murine low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP) is required for phagocytosis of targets bearing LRP ligands but is not required for C1q-triggered enhancement of phagocytosis.
C1q and members of the defense collagen family are pattern recognition molecules that bind to pathogens and apoptotic cells and trigger a rapid enhancement of phagocytic activity. Candidate phagocytic cell receptors responsible for the enhancement of phagocytosis by defense collagens have been proposed but not yet discerned. Engagement of phagocyte surface-associated calreticulin in complex with the large endocytic receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP/CD91), by defense collagens has been suggested as one mechanism governing enhanced ingestion of C1q-coated apoptotic cells. To investigate this possibility, macrophages were derived from transgenic mice genetically deficient in LRP resulting from tissue-specific loxP/Cre recombination. LRP-deficient macrophages were impaired in their ability to ingest beads coated with an LRP ligand when compared with LRP-expressing macrophages, confirming for the first time that LRP participates in phagocytosis. When LRP-deficient and -expressing macrophages were plated on C1q-coated slides, they demonstrated equivalently enhanced phagocytosis of sheep RBC suboptimally opsonized with IgG or complement, compared with cells plated on control protein. In addition, LRP-deficient and -expressing macrophages ingested equivalent numbers of apoptotic Jurkat cells in the presence and absence of serum. Both LRP-deficient and -expressing macrophages ingested fewer apoptotic cells when incubated in the presence of C1q-deficient serum compared with normal mouse serum, and the addition of purified C1q reconstituted uptake to control serum levels. These studies demonstrate a direct contribution of LRP to phagocytosis and indicate that LRP is not required for the C1q-triggered enhancement of phagocytosis, suggesting that other, still undefined, receptor(s) exist to mediate this important innate immune function.
Lillis, AP; Greenlee, MC; Mikhailenko, I; Pizzo, SV; Tenner, AJ; Strickland, DK; Bohlson, SS
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