Ocular abnormalities in Apert syndrome: genotype/phenotype correlations with fibroblast growth factor receptor type 2 mutations.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Apert syndrome, a disorder of craniosynostosis, syndactyly, and other craniofacial malformations, is caused by point mutations (Ser252Trp or Pro253Arg) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene. This study's goal was to determine ophthalmic phenotype/genotype correlations in patients with either mutation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of demographic and ophthalmologic data was performed for 18 children carrying either the S252W (11) or the P253R (7) mutation. Fisher exact tests were performed to determine significance of variable phenotypes between the two mutation groups. RESULTS: In the P253R group, 85% had strabismus (14% required surgery), 71% had ptosis, 43% had amblyopia, 14% had nasolacrimal duct obstruction, 14% had myopia, 14% had hyperopia, and 14% had astigmatism. In the S252W group, 91% had strabismus (64% required surgery), 73% had ptosis, 73% had amblyopia, 100% had nasolacrimal duct obstruction, 36% had myopia, 9% had hyperopia, and 82% had astigmatism. Overall, S252W and P253R groups showed significantly different numbers of patients with strabismus requiring surgery (p = 0.039), superior rectus muscle underaction (p = 0.024), nasolacrimal duct obstruction (p = 0.0002), and astigmatism (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with patients with the P253R mutation, Apert syndrome patients with the S252W mutation may have more severe ocular phenotypes with a higher likelihood of developing strabismus, especially vertical deviation. They also are more likely to develop astigmatic refractive errors and tearing secondary to nasolacrimal system anomalies.
Jadico, SK; Young, DA; Huebner, A; Edmond, JC; Pollock, AN; McDonald-McGinn, DM; Li, Y-J; Zackai, EH; Young, TL
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