Heterologous prime/boost immunization of rhesus monkeys by using diverse poxvirus vectors.
As the diversity of potential immunogens increases within certain classes of vectors, the possibility has arisen of employing heterologous prime/boost immunizations using diverse members of the same family of vectors. The present study was initiated to explore the use of divergent pox vectors in a prime/boost regimen to elicit high-frequency cellular immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope and simian immunodeficiency virus gag in rhesus monkeys. We demonstrated that monkeys vaccinated with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) prime/recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) boost regimen and monkeys vaccinated with a recombinant vaccinia virus prime/rFPV boost regimen developed comparable cellular immune responses that were greater in magnitude than those elicited by a homologous prime/boost with rMVA. Nevertheless, comparable magnitude recall cellular immune responses were observed in monkeys vaccinated with heterologous and homologous recombinant poxvirus following challenge with the CXCR4-tropic SHIV-89.6P. Consistent with this finding, comparable levels of containment of viral replication and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte preservation were seen in these groups of recombinant poxvirus-vaccinated monkeys. This study supports further exploration of combining recombinant vectors of the same family in prime/boost immunization strategies to optimize vaccine-elicited cellular immune responses.
Santra, S; Sun, Y; Parvani, JG; Philippon, V; Wyand, MS; Manson, K; Gomez-Yafal, A; Mazzara, G; Panicali, D; Markham, PD; Montefiori, DC; Letvin, NL
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