Outcome in African Americans and other minorities in the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT).
BACKGROUND: The SCD-HeFT demonstrated that implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) therapy significantly improved survival compared to medical therapy alone in stable moderately symptomatic heart failure patients with an ejection fraction < or = 35%. The purpose of this report is to describe the outcomes in African Americans (AAs) and other minorities. METHODS: Of 2521 patients enrolled, 23% were minorities and 17% were AAs. Baseline demographic, clinical variables, socioeconomic status, and long-term outcomes were compared according to race. Two major prespecified subgroups were examined: heart failure cause (ischemic vs nonischemic) and New York Heart Association class (II vs III). RESULTS: At baseline, compared to whites, AAs were younger and had more nonischemic heart failure, lower ejection fractions, worse New York Heart Association functional class, and higher prevalence of a history of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Comparable percentages of whites and AAs held paid jobs, but whites had a significantly higher educational level and household income (P = .001). Compliance with ICD implantation and medical therapy was comparable in both subgroups. No significant difference was observed in the rate of ICD discharge among whites and AAs. Adjusted mortality risk was significantly higher in AAs compared to whites (hazard ratio 1.27, P = .038). Mortality was equally reduced in both race groups receiving ICD therapy compared to placebo (hazard ratio 0.65 in AAs and 0.73 in whites). CONCLUSIONS: Survival benefits from ICD therapy in SCD-HeFT were not dependent on race. In addition, in this clinical trial setting, there was no evidence that AAs were less willing to accept ICD therapy than whites.
Mitchell, JE; Hellkamp, AS; Mark, DB; Anderson, J; Poole, JE; Lee, KL; Bardy, GH; SCD-HeFT Investigators,
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