Reduction of tissue injury in shock-wave lithotripsy by using an acoustic diode.
An acoustic diode (AD) was constructed of two acoustic transparent membranes with good initial contact to allow the transmission of the positive pressure of lithotripter shock wave at an almost unaltered level, yet attenuate significantly its negative pressure, was fabricated. It was evaluated systematically on a Dornier HM-3 lithotripter to assess its application potential to reduce vascular injury without compromising stone fragmentation efficiency during shock-wave lithotripsy. By inserting the AD, the maximum compressive pressure, maximum tensile pressure and tensile duration of the lithotripter shock wave were formed to drop from 49.7 to 47.8 MPa, -7.5 to -7.0 MPa and 6.0 to 5.1 micros, respectively. Damage of a 0.2-mm inner diameter vessel phantom (cellulose hollow fiber) was reduced from rupture after 31 +/- 11 shocks to no rupture after 100 shocks. Maximum bubble size in free-field, maximum dilation of the vessel phantom wall and bubble collapse time became smaller with the use of the AD. However, stone fragmentation showed similar results without a statistically significant difference between the case with and without the AD. All these evidences suggest that the use of an acoustic diode may be a feasible approach to reduce tissue injury without compromising stone comminution in shock-wave lithotripsy.
Zhu, S; Dreyer, T; Liebler, M; Riedlinger, R; Preminger, GM; Zhong, P
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