Induction of the protective antioxidant response element pathway by 6-hydroxydopamine in vivo and in vitro.
Parkinson's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease is unknown; however, oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in disease pathogenesis. Little is known regarding the transcriptional changes that occur in Parkinson's disease. The antioxidant response element is a cis-acting enhancer sequence that is upstream of many phase II detoxification and antioxidant genes. Here we show that 6-hydroxydopamine, a mitochondrial inhibitor used to model Parkinson's disease, activates the antioxidant response element both in cultured neurons and in the striatum and brainstem of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. Pretreatment with antioxidants or NMDA receptor antagonists reduced but did not abolish activation. Further induction of this pathway with tert-butylhydroquinone was able to significantly reduce cell death due to 6-OHDA in vitro. These observations indicate that 6-OHDA activates the antioxidant response element through components of oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and potential structural factors. Further induction of this endogenous defense mechanism may suggest a novel therapeutic venue in Parkinson's disease.
Jakel, RJ; Kern, JT; Johnson, DA; Johnson, JA
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