Macrophage-mediated fungistasis: requirement for a macromolecular component in serum.
Peritoneal macrophages from Mycobacterium bovis- or Toxoplasma gondii-infected mice cultured in vitro in Dulbecco's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and endotoxin stopped replication of Cryptococcus neoformans for 30 hr, whereas yeast cells cultured alone reproduced with a 3.0-hr doubling time. Without at least 5% FBS, macrophage fungistasis was poor. FBS without macrophages enhanced the growth rate of cryptococci. Macrophages preincubated in vitro for 24 hr without serum became fungistatic when challenged with cryptococci in medium with FBS but were not fungistatic without FBS. Macrophages preincubated in medium with FBS were never subsequently fungistatic. Dialyzed, heated (56 degrees C, 30 min), or delipidated FBS supported macrophage fungistasis, whereas FBS heated at 70 degrees C for 30 min did not. FBS contained no measurable opsonic activity for C. neoformans. Inclusion of endotoxin and/or murine IFN-gamma over wide concentration ranges did not substitute for FBS. Ultrafiltration estimation of FBS activity localized to 50 to 150 Kd. By gel filtration chromatography, FBS activity ran in the 25 to 100 Kd range. Dye-ligand affinity chromatography on Cibacron blue agarose gel dissociated the FBS activity from the albumin and lipoprotein fractions. Anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel revealed activity in the first fraction eluting at low ionic strength, pointing to a protein(s) with an isoelectric point toward neutral. Activated macrophages can prevent microbial replication within host tissues; the local environment is critical for fulfillment of this important physiologic function. These results point to a macromolecular factor(s) present in serum that is essential for full fungistatic capability of activated macrophages.
Granger, DL; Perfect, JR; Durack, DT
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