Payment source, quality of care, and outcomes in patients hospitalized with heart failure.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between payment source and quality of care and outcomes in heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: HF is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of studies assessing the association of payment source with HF quality of care and outcomes. METHODS: A total of 99,508 HF admissions from 244 sites between January 2005 and September 2009 were analyzed. Patients were grouped on the basis of payer status (private/health maintenance organization, no insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid) with private/health maintenance organization as the reference group. RESULTS: The no-insurance group was less likely to receive evidence-based beta-blockers (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62 to 0.86), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.70), or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.87). Similarly, the Medicaid group was less likely to receive evidence-based beta-blockers (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.95) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.96). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers were prescribed less frequently in the Medicare group (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.98). The Medicare, Medicaid, and no-insurance groups had longer hospital stays. Higher adjusted rates of in-hospital mortality were seen in patients with Medicaid (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.41) and in patients with reduced systolic function with no insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased quality of care and outcomes for patients with HF were observed in the no-insurance, Medicaid, and Medicare groups compared with the private/health maintenance organization group.
Kapoor, JR; Kapoor, R; Hellkamp, AS; Hernandez, AF; Heidenreich, PA; Fonarow, GC
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