Exacerbation of systemic inflammation and increased cerebral infarct volume with cardiopulmonary bypass after focal cerebral ischemia in the rat.
OBJECTIVE: Stroke remains a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to induce a significant inflammatory response, which could adversely influence outcomes. We hypothesized that cardiopulmonary bypass, through an enhanced systemic inflammatory response, might affect outcomes after focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Wistar rats (275-300 g) were anesthetized, surgically prepared for cardiopulmonary bypass and right middle cerebral artery occlusion, and randomly allocated to 2 groups: focal cerebral ischemia alone (n = 9) and focal cerebral ischemia combined with normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 8). Serum cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 1beta, 6, and 10) were measured at baseline, at end of bypass, and at 2, 6, and 24 hours after bypass. On postoperative day 3, animals underwent neurologic testing, after which the brains were prepared for assessment of cerebral infarct volume. Data were compared between groups by Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Compared with the ischemia-alone group, the ischemia plus bypass group had significantly higher levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 1beta and 10 at the end of bypass and 2 hours after bypass. In addition, the ischemia plus bypass animals had larger total cerebral infarct volumes (286 +/- 125 mm(3)) than did those with ischemia alone (144 +/- 85 mm(3), P = .0124). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary bypass increased cerebral infarct size after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. This worsening of outcome may in part be related to an augmented inflammatory response that accompanies cardiopulmonary bypass.
Homi, HM; Jones, WL; de Lange, F; Mackensen, GB; Grocott, HP
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