Effects of ethnicity on treatment attendance, stimulant response/dose, and 14-month outcome in ADHD.
From the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder--a randomized clinical trial of 579 children ages 7-9 years receiving 14 months of medication management, behavioral treatment, combination, or community care--the authors matched each African American and Latino participant with randomly selected Caucasian participants of same sex, treatment group, and site. Although Caucasian children were significantly less symptomatic than African American and Latino children on some ratings, response to treatment did not differ significantly by ethnicity after controlling for public assistance. Ethnic minority families cooperated with and benefited significantly from combination (multimodal) treatment (d = 0.36, compared with medication). This incremental gain withstood statistical control for mother's education, single-parent status, and public assistance. Treatment for lower socioeconomic status minority children, especially if comorbid, should combine medication and behavioral treatment.
Arnold, LE; Elliot, M; Sachs, L; Bird, H; Kraemer, HC; Wells, KC; Abikoff, HB; Comarda, A; Conners, CK; Elliott, GR; Greenhill, LL; Hechtman, L; Hindshaw, SP; Hoza, B; Jensen, PS; March, JS; Newcorn, JH; Pelham, WE; Severe, JB; Swanson, JM; Vitiello, B; Wigal, T
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