Liposomes as antigen delivery systems in viral immunity.
Since their first description, liposomes have been put to a wide variety of uses. Encapsulation or incorporation of antigens into liposomes markedly enhances the immunogenicity of the antigen. The type of immune response elicited by the liposome is found to depend on their chemical and structural properties. Immunization with viral glycoproteins encapsulated in liposomes has resulted in enhancement of the humoral response seen as a rise in the serum antibody levels which is several fold higher than that elicited by free antigen alone. Furthermore, liposome encapsulation of peptide antigens which are poor immunogens by themselves not only increases the immunogenicity of the peptide but also play an important role in delivery. The adjuvant effect afforded by liposomes can be further enhanced by the concomitant encapsulation of adjuvants like lipid A or muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine. Formation of liposomes with special characteristics such as pH sensitivity has resulted in the use of liposomes to deliver soluble antigen to the cytosol where it can undergo class I pathway of processing and presentation. Therefore liposomes could provide valuable tools to further understand the pathways of antigen processing and the requirements for induction of cell mediated immunity.
Reddy, R; Nair, S; Brynestad, K; Rouse, BT
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)