Polysomnographic assessment of DIMS: empirical evaluation of its diagnostic value.
This investigation examined the diagnostic value of polysomnography (PSG) for evaluating disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS). The sample consisted of 100 outpatients who presented to the Duke Sleep Disorders Center with a complaint of chronic insomnia. All patients were given comprehensive medical, psychiatric, behavioral, and ambulatory PSG evaluations. Sleep disorder diagnoses were assigned using the criteria of the Association of Sleep Disorders Centers. Overall, PSG yielded important diagnostic information in 65% of the sample: 34% were given a primary sleep disorder diagnosis that was heavily dependent on PSG data [periodic movements of sleep (PMS) = 25%, apnea = 3%, and subjective insomnia = 6%]; 15% were given a secondary diagnosis of one of these three disorders; and PSG ruled out suspected PMS in 9% and sleep apnea in 7% of the sample. Patients greater than 40 years of age had a significantly higher rate of positive PSG findings than younger patients. Using only the clinical exam, two experienced sleep clinicians were able to predict only 14 of 25 PMS cases and one of three cases of sleep apnea. Based on these data, we suggest using PSG routinely with older insomniacs and with younger patients who fail initial treatment.
Edinger, JD; Hoelscher, TJ; Webb, MD; Marsh, GR; Radtke, RA; Erwin, CW
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