Sensory blockade of smoking satisfaction.
Cigarette smokers were presented with controlled doses of cigarette smoke to determine whether the resulting reduction in cigarette craving depended upon perceiving the sensory qualities of the smoke. Cigarette craving was assessed before and after inhaling controlled doses of smoke in two conditions: (1) Local anesthesia of the upper and lower respiratory airways, induced by mouth rinsing, gargling and inhalation of a mist containing the topical anesthetic lidocaine; and (2) no-anesthesia control, in which all solutions were saline. A sham smoking procedure was presented in both conditions. Craving and ad lib smoking behavior were also assessed 30 minutes after controlled smoking. The results indicated that smoke, as opposed to sham puffs, significantly reduced reports of cigarette craving, and local anesthesia significantly blocked this immediate reduction in craving produced by smoke inhalation. Puffs were also rated as less desirable in the anesthesia condition. Thirty minutes after smoking, craving was no different in the anesthesia and saline control conditions. However, craving as well as smoking intake in both conditions was less when smoke had been given previously than in the sham smoking control. These results suggest that sensory cues accompanying inhalation of cigarette smoke are important determinants of immediate smoking satisfaction. However, the sustained effects of smoke intake on subsequent smoking behavior (30 min later) may be mediated by processes other than sensory stimulation of the respiratory tract, such as plasma nicotine levels.
Rose, JE; Tashkin, DP; Ertle, A; Zinser, MC; Lafer, R
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