Genomic correlates of variability in immune response to an oral cholera vaccine.
Cholera is endemic to many countries. Recent major outbreaks of cholera have prompted World Health Organization to recommend oral cholera vaccination as a public-health strategy. Variation in percentage of seroconversion upon cholera vaccination has been recorded across populations. Vaccine-induced responses are influenced by host genetic differences. We have investigated association between single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) loci in and around 296 immunologically relevant genes and total anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody response to a killed whole-cell vaccine, comprising LPS from multiple strains of Vibrio cholerae. Titers derived from standard vibriocidal assays were also analyzed to gain further insights on validated SNP associations. Vaccination was administered to 1000 individuals drawn from India. Data on two independent random subsets, each comprising ∼500 vaccinees, were used for discovery of genomic associations and validation, respectively. Significant associations of four SNPs and haplotypes in three genes (MARCO, TNFAIP3 and CXCL12) with AR were discovered and validated, of which two in TNFAIP3 and CXCL12 were also significantly associated with immunity (fourfold increase in vibriocidal titers). CXCL12 is a neutrophil and lymphocyte chemoattractant that is upregulated in response to V. cholerae infection. LPS in the vaccine possibly provides signals that mimic those of the live bacterium. TNFAIP3 promotes intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and provides tight junction protein regulation; possible requirements for adequate response to the vaccine. LPS is a potent activator of innate immune responses and a ligand of MARCO. Variants in this gene have been found to be associated with LPS response, but not with high vibriocidal titer level.
Majumder, PP; Sarkar-Roy, N; Staats, H; Ramamurthy, T; Maiti, S; Chowdhury, G; Whisnant, CC; Narayanasamy, K; Wagener, DK
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