Cytokines: the future of intranasal vaccine adjuvants.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Due to its potential as an effective, needle-free route of immunization for use with subunit vaccines, nasal immunization continues to be evaluated as a route of immunization in both research and clinical studies. However, as with other vaccination routes, subunit vaccines often require the addition of adjuvants to induce potent immune responses. Unfortunately, many commonly used experimental vaccine adjuvants, such as cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile toxin, are too toxic for use in humans. Because new adjuvants are needed, cytokines have been evaluated for their ability to provide effective adjuvant activity when delivered by the nasal route in both animal models and in limited human studies. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the potential of cytokines as nasal vaccine adjuvants.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Thompson, AL; Staats, HF

Published Date

  • 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 2011 /

Start / End Page

  • 289597 -

PubMed ID

  • 21826181

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3150188

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1740-2530

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1155/2011/289597


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Egypt