Temperature-dependent mechanistic transition for photoinduced electron transfer modulated by excited-state vibrational relaxation dynamics.
The electron transfer (ET) dynamics of an unusually rigid pi-stacked (porphinato)zinc(II)-spacer-quinone (PZn-Q) system, [5-[8'-(4' '-[8' ''-(2' '' ',5' '' '-benzoquinonyl)-1' ''-naphthyl]-1' '-phenyl)-1'-naphthyl]-10,20-diphenylporphinato]zinc(II) (2a-Zn), in which sub-van der Waals interplanar distances separate juxtaposed porphyryl, aromatic bridge, and quinonyl components of this assembly, have been measured by ultrafast pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy over a 80-320 K temperature range in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) solvent. Analyses of the photoinduced charge-separation (CS) rate data are presented within the context of several different theoretical frameworks. Experiments show that at higher temperatures the initially prepared 2a-Zn vibronically excited S1 state relaxes on an ultrafast time scale, and ET is observed exclusively from the equilibrated lowest-energy S1 state (CS1). As the temperature decreases, production of the photoinduced charge-separated state directly from the vibrationally unrelaxed S1 state (CS2) becomes competitive with the vibrational relaxation time scale. At the lowest experimentally interrogated temperature ( approximately 80 K), CS2 defines the dominant ET pathway. ET from the vibrationally unrelaxed S1 state is temperature-independent and manifests a subpicosecond time constant; in contrast, the CS1 rate constant is temperature-dependent, exhibiting time constants ranging from 4x10(10) s(-1) to 4x10(11) s(-1) and is correlated strongly with the temperature-dependent solvent dielectric relaxation time scale over a significant temperature domain. Respective electronic coupling matrix elements for each of these photoinduced CS1 and CS2 pathways were determined to be approximately 50 and approximately 100 cm-1. This work not only documents a rare, if not unique, example of a system where temperature-dependent photoinduced charge-separation (CS) dynamics from vibrationally relaxed and unrelaxed S1 states can be differentiated, but also demonstrates a temperature-dependent mechanistic transition of photoinduced CS from the nonadiabatic to the solvent-controlled adiabatic regime, followed by a second temperature-dependent mechanistic evolution where CS becomes decoupled from solvent dynamics and is determined by the extent to which the vibrationally unrelaxed S1 state is populated.
Kang, YK; Duncan, TV; Therien, MJ
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