Sampling and mass spectrometric analytical methods for five antineoplastic drugs in the healthcare environment.
CONTEXT: Healthcare worker exposure to antineoplastic drugs continues to be reported despite safe handling guidelines published by several groups. Sensitive sampling and analytical methods are needed so that occupational safety and health professionals may accurately assess environmental and biological exposure to these drugs in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: To develop liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical methods for measuring five antineoplastic drugs in samples from the work environment, and to apply these methods in validating sampling methodology. A single method for quantifying several widely used agents would decrease the number of samples required for method development, lower cost, and time of analysis. METHODS: for measuring these drugs in workers' urine would also be useful in monitoring personal exposure levels. RESULTS: LC-MS/MS methods were developed for individual analysis of five antineoplastic drugs in wipe and air sample media projected for use in field sampling: cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil. Cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and paclitaxel were also measured simultaneously in some stages of the work. Extraction methods for air and wipe samples were developed and tested using the aforementioned analytical methods. Good recoveries from the candidate air and wipe sample media for most of the compounds, and variable recoveries for test wipe samples depending on the surface under study, were observed. Alternate LC-MS/MS methods were also developed to detect cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel in urine samples. CONCLUSIONS: The sampling and analytical methods were suitable for determining worker exposure to antineoplastics via surface and breathing zone contamination in projected surveys of healthcare settings.
Pretty, JR; Connor, TH; Spasojevic, I; Kurtz, KS; McLaurin, JL; B'Hymer, C; Debord, DG
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)