Relative contribution of vasopressin and angiotensin II to the altered renal microcirculatory dynamics in two-kidney Goldblatt hypertension.
The renal microcirculation was assessed in non-clipped kidneys of 23 Munich-Wistar rats with two-kidney one-clip Goldblatt hypertension. Four weeks after placement of a renal arterial clip, mean systemic arterial pressure averaged 163 +/- 5 mm Hg in hypertensive rats as compared to 108 +/- 2 in sham-operated controls (n = 6 rats). Non-clipped kidneys in hypertensive rats were characterized by higher glomerular capillary hydraulic pressures, single nephron glomerular filtration rate, and afferent arteriolar resistance. The glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient was significantly reduced in hypertensive rats. In 10 of these rats, intravenous infusion of the angiotensin antagonist, saralasin, or the converting enzyme inhibitor, SQ20881, led to significant reductions in systemic arterial pressure and in afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance, on average by 8 +/- 3%, 15 +/- 4%, 28 +/- 5%, respectively. These changes were associated with significant increase in glomerular plasma flow, while ultrafiltration coefficient remained unaffected. In the presence of saralasin or SQ20881, infusion of a specific antagonist of the vascular action of arginine vasopressin led to significant systemic but not renal vasodilation. Thus, whereas systemic arterial pressure fell further, on average by 23 +/- 2%, renal arteriolar resistance remained constant, resulting in marked reduction in glomerular capillary hydraulic pressures (by 18 +/- 2%) and glomerular plasma flow rate (by 28 +/- 10%). Because of these pronounced reductions in glomerular pressures and flows induced by vasopressin antagonist, single nephron glomerular filtration rate fell markedly in hypertensive rats (by 34 +/- 6%) despite normalization of ultrafiltration coefficient. When hypertensive rats (n = 7) were treated with vasopressin antagonist alone, a modest fall in systemic arterial pressure was again observed in the absence of changes in renal arteriolar resistance. Due to this selective extrarenal vasodilatory action of vasopressin antagonist, glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure, plasma flow rate, and single nephron glomerular filtration rate again fell markedly. When these vasopressin antagonist pre-treated hypertensive rats were given saralasin or SQ20881, marked reductions in renal arteriolar resistance were observed in association with a significant increase in glomerular plasma flow rate. These observations made during acute inhibition of angiotensin II and vasopressin indicate that both of these vasopressin hormones may play important roles in maintaining systemic hypertension in hypertensive rat. By virtue of its preferential constrictor effects on extrarenal rather than renal vasculature vasopressin serves to maintain high glomerular pressures and flows in the non-clipped kidney of Goldblatt hypertensive rats.
Ichikawa, I; Ferrone, RA; Duchin, KL; Manning, M; Dzau, VJ; Brenner, BM
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