Myocardial depression by anesthetic agents (halothane, enflurane and nitrous oxide): quantitation based on end-systolic pressure-dimension relations.
The end-systolic pressure-diameter relation of the left ventricle was used to examine the effect of halothane, enflurane and nitrous oxide on left ventricular (LV) contractility in 10 dogs chronically instrumented with dimension transducers to measure LV diameter and micromanometers to measure LV transmural pressure. Contractility was assessed by the slope (EES) of the end-systolic pressure-diameter relation. A new index that identifies the dose of anesthetic necessary to depress the inotropic state by 20% (ID20) was calculated to be 0.63% for halothane and 1.55% for enflurane, indicating a greater apparent myocardial depressant effect of halothane than enflurane. However, when these agents were compared at equi-anesthetic concentrations by normalizing the ID20 to the minimal alveolar concentration of each drug, they had comparable degrees of myocardial depressant effects. This measurement technique was used in 7 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting conducted under narcotic anesthesia showing that halothane induced a similar depression of contractility. The use of ID20 should allow reclassification of anesthetic agents according to their myocardial depressant effects.
Van Trigt, P; Christian, CC; Fagraeus, L; Spray, TL; Peyton, RB; Pellom, GL; Wechsler, AS
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