Radiation effects and radioprotection in MC3T3-E1 mouse calvarial osteoblastic cells.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the mechanisms and treatment of radiation-induced inhibition of craniofacial bone growth. In an earlier study, the radioprotector amifostine (WR-2721) administered to rabbits before irradiation radioprotected cultured orbitozygomatic complex periosteal osteoblast-like cells. This study assessed the effects of amifostine and its active metabolite on the radiation survival, function, and phenotype of mouse calvarial osteoblast-like cells in a cell culture model. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 newborn mouse calvarial osteoblast-like cells underwent gamma-radiation (0 to 10 Gy) in the presence or absence of either WR-2721 or WR-1065, its active metabolite (10 to 10 M). The effects of radiation with and without drugs were assessed using endpoints of colony-forming ability, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of osteoblastic phenotype genes (alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and osteopontin). All experiments were replicated at least in triplicate. RESULTS: Irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of clonogenic cell survival. Pretreatment with WR-1065, but not WR-2721, resulted in a significant improvement of osteoblast-like cell survival. Specifically, maximum radioprotection was observed with 10 M WR-1065 at a clinically relevant 2-Gy dose of irradiation. No significant radioprotection was observed at the lower (5 x 10 M) concentration of WR-1065. Furthermore, radiation seemed to suppress the expression of osteoblastic phenotype-related genes in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals improved survival after irradiation in osteoblast-like cells treated with WR-1065 in vitro and corroborates previous findings from animal models. Further studies using this agent and similar drugs are important for devising strategies to prevent radiation-induced inhibition of craniofacial bone growth.
Gevorgyan, A; Sukhu, B; Alman, BA; Bristow, RG; Pang, CY; Forrest, CR
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