Cytotoxicity of the Type 4 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor CD160130 for Freshly Isolated Human CLL Cells In Vitro.
B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common subtype of leukemia in the United States of America and in Europe, is treatable but incurable. New drugs are needed for its management. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi) block catabolism of cyclic nucleotides resulting in accumulation of cellular cAMP and cGMP. These PDEi also decrease production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor. Furthermore, they inhibit expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) mRNA and NO production. Researchers have previously noted that nonspecific PDE inhibitors such as theophylline as well as a relatively specific PDE4 inhibitor (rolipram) cause CLL cell death in vitro, while relatively sparing normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CD160130 in the killing of freshly isolated CLL cells in vitro. CD160130 is a novel, orally available heterocyclic pyrimido-indole derivative that is relatively PDE4-specific. Patients were from the V.A. and Duke University Medical Centers, and normal controls were from the community. Control normal PBMC were isolated by ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation, and CLL cells were purified using negative selection with antibodies. We determined cytotoxicity using the MTS colorimetric assay. Samples from 10 CLL patients (6 male and 4 female) and 10 normal controls were examined. Nine of 10 patients were stage 0 at presentation, and 1 was stage 2. They had been followed 6.1 yr (median; range 0.7–19.1 yr). One of 10 was CD38 positive, and 6 of 10 were Zap-70 positive. Of nine analyzed, one had unmutated IgVH gene, and 9 were mutated. Six patients had not been treated, and 4 had been treated with chlorambucil, fludarabine, and/or rituximab. Four had normal cytogenetics by FISH analysis; one had trisomy 12; three had 13q14 del; and one had 17p del. Of seven determined, two had elevated CLL cell lipoprotein lipase mRNA elevated. CD160130 induced cell death in a dose-dependent fashion in all patients’ samples, with a mean cytotoxicity of 96% at 12.5 uM. The mean ED50 for killing was 233 nM in media with FBS and 314 nM in serum-free medium, while that for PBMC was higher at 7500 nM with FBS and 5210 nM with serum-free medium. The agent was 32.2 fold more potent for killing of CLL cells compared to PBMC in medium with FBS and 16.6 fold more potent for CLL cells in serum-free medium. In summary, the PDE4 inhibitor CD160130 potently kills freshly isolated CLL cells in vitro in the presence or absence of serum. The killing is relatively selective for CLL cells compared to normal PBMC. In vivo trials of CD160130 in patients with CLL should help determine the toxicity and efficacy in patients.
Weinberg, JB; Jiang, N; Volkheimer, AD; Chen, Y; Bond, KM; Moore, JO; Gockerman, JP; Diehl, LF; de Castro, CM; Rizzieri, DA; Levesque, MC; Mugridge, K; DeAngelo, J
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