Gallstone ileus: revisiting surgical outcomes using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data.
BACKGROUND: Although surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy for gallstone ileus, the optimal approach--enterolithotomy alone or combined with biliary-enteric fistula disruption--is controversial because of the reliance on small single-center series to describe outcomes. Using the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we sought to (1) review the outcomes of patients undergoing surgical management of gallstone ileus and (2) determine if cholecystectomy in addition to enterolithotomy increased morbidity or mortality rate. METHODS: We analyzed the demographics, comorbidities, acuity, operative time, postoperative hospitalization length, and 30-d morbidity and mortality rates of 127 patients from 2005 to 2010 who underwent a procedure for the relief of gallstone ileus. We identified a subset of 14 patients who underwent simultaneous cholecystectomy. We compared the "no cholecystectomy" and "cholecystectomy" groups using standard statistical methods. RESULTS: The overall 30-d postoperative morbidity and mortality rate was 35.4% and 5.5%, respectively. Superficial surgical site infection and urinary tract infection were the most common complications. There was no significant difference in mortality rate between the no cholecystectomy and the cholecystectomy groups (5.3% versus 7.1%, respectively; P = 0.78), but the latter group did experience more minor complications, longer operations, and longer postoperative hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Other recent studies on this topic have collected data or reviewed literature across several decades, making this study in particular one of the largest truly modern series. Perhaps reflecting changes in perioperative management, surgical treatment of gallstone ileus is less morbid than previously described, but there is still insufficient evidence to favor concurrent cholecystectomy.
Mallipeddi, MK; Pappas, TN; Shapiro, ML; Scarborough, JE
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