Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States.
BACKGROUND: The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history. OBJECTIVE: Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007-2010 NHANES (n=12 110). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4-11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4-7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0-12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8-7.4], respectively; p<0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28-0.49], p<0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49-0.73], p<0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones.
Scales, CD; Smith, AC; Hanley, JM; Saigal, CS; Urologic Diseases in America Project,
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